Not a single city in northern India meets international air quality standards, according to a Greenpeace report that estimates air pollution kills more than one million Indians each year and takes three percent off the country’s GDP.
EU membership has been a major factor behind the marked improvement in environmental quality in the UK since the 1980s, according to an independent report into the potential impact of a leave vote in the June referendum.
Air pollution and smog have health consequences for affected populations ranging from respiratory problems to death. Fine particulate matter especially has become the focus in recent years, because it increases the probability of dying from respiratory or cardiovascular disease. In addition, the risk of stroke is increased, as shown by Barbara Hoffmann and her coauthors in a recent study in Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.