Until recently, it was assumed that the ink used for writing was primarily carbon-based at least until the fourth and fifth centuries AD. But in a new University of Copenhagen study, analyses of 2,000-year-old papyri fragments with X-ray microscopy showed that black ink used by Egyptian scribes also contained copper — an element previously not identified in ancient ink.
Scientists have identified one of the oldest known plesiosaurs. The 132 million-year-old remains of the ancient sea monster were recovered in 1964 in northern Germany, but only recently examined by researchers.
The newly discovered gateway to the city of Parseh in the Persepolis, located in Iran's Fars Province near Shiraz, will be turned into a museum, the Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism (RICHT) said.
Centuries ago medieval monks typically used iron gall ink to copy texts onto parchments made from sheepskin or cowhide. Unfortunately these documents grew harder and harder to read over time, in part because the ink would fade from a dark black to a light brown; the parchment slowly darkened as well. The contrast that was once stark slowly grew distorted, often rendering the texts illegible.